IT and security stuff

AZ-900 Cheatsheet

What is the Cloud?

On-Premises Information Systems Architecture

  • WORKLOAD
  • SERVICES
  • VIRTUAL MACHINES
  • VIRTUALIZATION
  • PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
  • PHYSICAL FACILITY

Cloud Architecture

  • WORKLOAD
  • SERVICES
  • VIRTUAL MACHINE
  • MANAGEMENT PLANE(ex Azure Portal)
  • VIRTUALIZATION(managed by provider)
  • PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE(managed by provider)
  • PHYSICAL FACILITY(managed by provider)

Types of Cloud Services

  • SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE
  • PLATFORM AS A SERVICE
  • INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE

Accessing Cloud Services

  • VPN GATEWAY(over internet)
  • EXPRESS ROUTE(WAN)

What is Azure?

Azure as a Cloud Provider

  • Management plane allows you to manage every services with management tools
  • Azure portal, Azure Powershell, REST API are examples of management tools

Azure Clouds

  • Azure Public Cloud
  • Microsoft Cloud for US Government
  • Microsoft Cloud Germany
  • Azure and Office 365 operated by 21Vianet in China

Azure Regions

Azure Billing Models

  • Capacity based billing
  • Consumption based billing
  • Fee-based billing

Why Choose the Cloud?

Cloud Economics

  • Storage
  • Compute
  • Networking

CapEx vs OpEx

  • On-premises capacity expansion = capital expense
    • Purchase equipment and licensing up-front
    • Depreciate and replace equipment
    • Renew licenses
  • Cloud-base capacity expansion = operation expense
    • Billed monthly for what is used
    • No equipment purchase
    • May or may not require license purchase
  • Capacity reduction
    • On-premises — possibly sell excess equipment
    • Cloud — reduce monthly costs

Consumption-Base Spending

  • Capacity-based spending
    • On-premises resources
    • Some Azure resources – virtual machines
  • Consumption-based spending
    • Pay only for what is used
    • Function apps, logic apps, storage accounts

Functional Advantages

  • Provision environments in minutes rather than days, weeks, or months
    • No capital equipment purchases
    • Streamlined provisioning process
  • Built-in access and allocation management
  • Reduced administrative overhead

Azure Management Tools

Azure Management Plane

  • Regardless of the way you manage Azure, you are using REST API as a pipeline

Azure Portal

  • Web-based
  • For every types of users

Azure Command Line Tools

  • Azure PowerShell cmdlets
  • Azure CLI

Azure REST API

  • Communicates through HTTPS
  • Allows to build custom applications

Azure Cloud Shell

  • Web-based console interface
    • Bash shell
    • PowerShell
    • Cross-platform
  • https://shell.azure.com

Azure Subscription Management

Azure Subscriptions

Azure Subscriptions and Resources | by rahul sahay | Medium
Subscription is the layer where the capital resources are managed

Subscription Types

  • Pay as you go — Most common
  • Enterprise — Most common
  • 3rd party
  • Free
  • Credit

Subscription Access

Elevate access to manage all Azure subscriptions and management groups |  Microsoft Docs

Management Groups

Organize your resources with management groups - Azure Governance - Azure  governance | Microsoft Docs
Allows us to management our policies and subscriptions the right way

Enterprise License Agreement

  • Azure stand-alone enrollment or as part of on-premises enrollment
  • Azure EA port
    • Departments, accounts, subscriptions
    • Roles — enterprise administrator, department administrator
  • Cost reporting is different
    • Spending Quota — department level
  • Enterprise Dev/Test Subscriptions
    • Lower cost
    • No SLA
    • Licensed for dev/test only

Azure Service Lifecycle

  • General availability
  • Public preview
  • Private preview

Azure Cost Planning

Azure Service Purchasing

  • Reserved Instances
  • Low priority compute
  • Performance and feature tiers
  • Free accounts
  • Free services

Azure Pricing Models

  • Capacity-based pricing
    • Virtual machines
    • Virtual network gateways
    • Charges typically accrue per minute
  • Consumption-based pricing
    • Function and logic apps
    • Storage accounts
  • Combination pricing
    • Cosmos DB
    • Service bus
  • Almost consumption-based
    • Container instances — charges accrue per second

Key Azure Cost Factors

  • Size/Capacity
  • Pricing tier
  • Infrastructure versus platform functionality
  • Region
  • Regional zone
  • Data transfer costs

Azure Cost Management Best Practices

Cost Analysis

  • Many builtin tools for cost analysis

Spending Limits & Quotas

  • Spending Limits
    • Apply to credit-based subscription — MSDN, Trial
    • Subscription is disabled
  • Spending Quotas
    • At the enterprise department level
    • Subscriptions are not disabled
    • Sends notifications at 50%, 75%, 90% and 100% of quota
  • Budgets
    • At the subscription level
    • Subscription is not disabled
    • Custom set alert/notification levels
  • Using Tags
  • Using Policies
  • Azure Reservations & Spot Pricing
    • 1 year reserved with AHB = ~40% savings
    • 3 years reserved with AHB = ~62% savings
    • Spot with AHB = ~80% savings
  • Optimizing Location
    • Regional cost differences
    • Pricing zones

Using Azure Costs Tools

  • Azure Cost Advisor
  • Azure Pricing Calculator
  • Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Calculator
  • Azure Cost Management

Azure Cost Management Tools

Azure Cost Advisor

  • Reduce costs by eliminating unprovisioned ExpressRoute circuits
  • Buy reserved virtual machine instances to save money over pay-as-you-go costs
  • Delete unassociated public IP addresses to save money
  • Use Standard Snapshots for Managed Disks

Azure Pricing Calculator

Azure Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Calculator

Cost Management & Billing

Azure Support

Azure Support Plans

  • Basic
    • Billing and subscription support
    • Azure advisors
  • Developer
    • Business hours e-mail support
    • <8 hour response time
  • Standard
    • <8 for minimal impact incidents
    • <1 hour response for critical business impact incidents
    • 24/7 access via e-mail and phone
  • Professional direct
    • <4 hour for minimal impact incidents
    • Architecture guidance, operational support, training
  • Premier
    • Dedicated architecture guidance and review
    • On-demand training
    • <15 minute response with Azure Rapid Response or Azure Event Management

Support Tickets

Azure Service Level Agreements

Azure SLAs

  • Many services at 99% or 99.5 SLA for availability and performance
  • Virtual Machine availability
    • 99.5% – single, premium VM
    • 99.95% – 2 or more VMs in availability set
    • 99.99% – 2 or more VMs in availability zones
  • Web apps – 99.95% available
  • Azure SQL database availability — up to 99.995%
  • Azure CosmosDB — up to 99.99% throughput, 99,999% availability

Composite SLAs

  • Solutions may implement multiple services with independent SLAs
  • Services may be dependent or independent
    • Dependent – Use the sum of downtime. Example
      • Solution includes a web app (99.5% available) which is dependent on a service running in a premium virtual machine (99.9% available)
      • Downtime minutes per month ( assuming 43,200 minutes/month):
        • Web app – 21.6
        • Virtual machine – 43.2
        • Total – 64.8
      • Composite availability – 99.85%

Shared Responsibility Model

Azure Resource Manager

Azure Resource

  • Everything in Azure
  • Sometimes referred to as services
  • Fundamental object in the “management plane”
  • Charges accrue at the resource level
    • Billing is at the subscription level

Azure Management Model

Azure Resource Groups

  • Primary Organizational Object
  • Administrative roles
  • Governance by policy
  • Life cycle management
  • Spending allocation

Azure Marketplace

  • All Azure resources
  • Provided by Microsoft
  • Provided by partners
  • Organized by service type
  • Searchable

Azure Regions & Availability Zones

Azure Regions

Availability Zones

What is the Availability zone on Azure? - UnixArena

  • Storage Geo-Redundancy
    • Locally Redundant Storage
      • All regions
      • All services
      • All tiers
      • 99.9% availability
      • 11 9s durability
    • Zone Redundant Storage
      • Limited regions
      • General prupose V2, FileStorage, BlockBlob
      • All tiers
      • 99.9% availability
      • 12 9s durability
    • Geo Redundant Storage
      • Limited regions
      • General purpose V2, GPv1, Blob
      • All tiers
      • 99.99% read availability
      • 16 9s durability
      • Preview GZRS,RA-GZR
  • Azure SQL Database Geo-Redundancy
    • Geo-Replication
      • Up to 4 secondaries
      • Different regions
      • Read-only
    • Auto-failover
      • Single databases
      • Multiple databases
      • Entire server(managed instance)
  • CosmosDB
    • 99.99% single region
    • 99.999% multi-region(read and/or write)

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